STD 8 LESSON 1 ARRIVAL OF EUROPEANS IN INDIA

STD 8 LESSON 1 ARRIVAL OF EUROPEANS IN INDIA


We have learnt in the previous standard that many years ago, our country was one of the leading countries in the world.
Our country was distinct in the whole world. The people of various countries were being influenced by our culture
and prosperity. Many people worldwide were eager to enter into trade with our country and earn wealth out of it.
Earlier, the merchants from the various countries came to India from north-west by land route for the purpose of trading.
For years, the Arab traders undertook trade through land route; but as situations changed, trade through land
route stopped. Consequently, the demand for Indian commodities like silk, cotton clothes, muslin, black pepper,

spices, etc. increased in the European countries. To take the advantage of this situation, many countries of Europe
started searching for a sea route to India.
Subsequently, some adventurous sailors of Europe and other countries started the
search of sea route to come to India.

Christopher Columbus

Columbus, an Italian explorer, was one of the brave sailors who ventured out to find
the sea route to India. He thought that one can go to the East via West also. Why did he believe so? Think about it. Columbus started his journey to India and accidentally
reached America. As long as he lived, he was under the misconception that he had discovered the sea route to India. Hence, even today the natives of America are called
Red Indians and the island group in the Caribbean is known as the West Indies.

Vasco-Da-Gama

Vasco-Da-Gama, a native of Portugal, discovered the sea route to India. He encircled the
‘Cape of Good Hope’ in South Africa and reached the Port of Calicut on 22nd May 1498 after
crossing the Indian Ocean. The then ruling king of Calicut, Zamorin, gave permission to
the Portuguese to trade. The Portuguese established a fort in Calicut for trade in 1500 C.E. They fortified it and
appointed a commander in chief, namely Albuquerque, to safeguard the fort. Moving northwards, Albuquerque
conquered Goa in 1506 C.E. Within a span of 100 years, the Portuguese took control
of Mangalore, Cochin, Goa, Diu, Mumbai and Island of Lanka.
STD 8 LESSON 1 ARRIVAL OF EUROPEANS IN INDIA


End of Portuguese rule

In the beginning of the 17th century, the Portuguese expanded their trade to Bengal. At
this time, the Mughal Emperor, Shahjahan ruled India from Delhi. The Subedar of
Bengal complained to Shahjahan about the behaviour of the Portuguese. Thus, the
fort of Hugli was demolished and the ships were burnt as per the order of the Emperor.
In this way, the Portuguese rule came to end with the exception of the territories of Diu,
Daman and Goa. 


The Dutch

After 100 years of the arrival of the Portuguese, at the end of the 16th century, theDutch of Holland (now the Netherlands) came to India for trading. Initially, theyestablished forts at Pulicat and Madras (now Chennai). They also established atrading centre at Agra in the year 1663. Meanwhile the British also arrived in India. TheDutch could not withstand the competition against the British.

British Interest in India

During the reign of Queen Elizabeth of England in the year 1600 C.E., the British
established the East India Company. This company belonged to merchants who
wanted to increase their wealth by undertaking trade with India.
The first British ship arrived in India at the port of Surat in the year 1608 C.E. Captain
W. Hawkins, the captain of the ship, was the first British to set foot in India. He met
Jahangir but did not get his permission to trade. Thereafter, Sir Thomas Roe, arrived
in India who acquired the permission to establish a trading centre in Surat. Later, Delhi
went in to the hands of Shahjahan. Shahjahan gave permission to the British to carry
out trade in Bengal. 

The French

The French established ‘The French East India Company’ in the year 1664 C.E. Theyestablished factories in Surat, Machhalipatnam and Puducherry (Pondicherry). Thehead of the French company was Joseph Francois Dupleix, who had the desire toexpand the European rule in India. Thus, the French and the British stood incompetition against each other to become the strongest European company. Therewere innumerable disputes and battles and finally the British emerged as the winners.;However, the French retained their control over the trading centers of Puducherry,Mahe and Chandranagar.
STD 8 LESSON 1 ARRIVAL OF EUROPEANS IN INDIA
British Trade in Bengal

The British first started their trade on the banks of the river Hugli and established forts
in the year 1651 C.E. The forts were garrisoned for their protection of the factory and
got the permission from the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb to trade without paying taxes
against an annual payment.

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